POP Anca Lucia1, MOROŞAN Elena1, JASSIM Ruaa Aziz1 IONITA Elena1
1Clinical Laboratory and Food Safety Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
The possible action of the seeds extracts, skin and pulp of Vitis Vinifera species Hamburg on rat diuresis was followed. The determinations were performed on uniform batches of Wistar rats, previously selected, which were treated orally with 10% aqueous extractive solutions of the seed, skin and pulp of Vitis Vinifera Hamburg species. Urine volume and urinary pH were determined hourly for 8 hours. The urine collected for 8 hours determined the urinary sediment, urinary urea, uric acid, urinary creatinine, NaCl elimination and the eventual elimination of pathological compounds was followed: proteins, glucose, ketone bodies and blood pigments.
Key words: Vitis Vinifera fruits, diuresis, urinary sediment, uric acid
The Vitis Vinifera fruits are used from thousand years ago for their nutritive and therapeutically value. They are rich in sugars, flavonoids, anthocyans, proanthocyanidins, organic acids, tannin, mineral salts and vitamins A, B, C. Grapes like many plants are highly sensitive to climatic conditions and environmental quality [1,2,3].
Grapes have special diuretic and purifying properties, helping to eliminate water retention, so it is recommended, without reservations, in diets. Black grapes contain tannins that improve digestion and relax the intestinal muscles. People suffering from constipation can frequently consume grapes to regulate intestinal transit. Nutritionists recommend that grapes be eaten whole with peel and seeds because they contain the highest concentration of enzymes, minerals and fiber, flavonoids and polyphenols that maintain the elasticity of blood vessels, the proper functioning of the immune system, regulate metabolism, energize and especially, detoxifies [4-9].
Grape skins contain bioflavonoids and polyphenols. Resveratrol is part of a group of compounds called polyphenols and is extracted from the skin of red grapes, which are the most abundant source of resveratrol. The relatively high amounts of resveratrol in grape skin are intended to help the plant withstand fungal infections, diseases and adverse weather conditions .
The red and black species fruits peel is rich in resveratrol, a stilben derivative. The studies demonstrated that Resveratrol has antioxidant properties [11-14], reduces the cardiovascular diseases risks, can prevent the installation of cancer, reduces the plasmatic triglycerides and cholesterol [15-18]. Clinical studies have shown that resveratrol has an equivalent anti-inflammatory effect compared to phenylbutazone or indomethacin. In animal studies, resveratrol inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation.
In the present paper the influence of Vitis Vinifera fruits (species Hamburg) on rat diuresis was analyzed. We also analyzed how the elimination of uric acid, urea, creatinine and NaCl is influenced. It was investigated the elimination of pathological compounds after the administration of the aqueous extracts from the skin, core and pulp of the fruit.
Materials and Methods
The measures were made on uniform batches of Whistar male rats, weighing 180±10 g. The animals brought from the biobase were kept for two days in laboratory conditions for accomodation with the new lab conditions and food regimen. The animals were fed two times a day and were administrated water „ad libitum” from bottles. Before beginning of the tests the food was totally restricted for 24 hours.
We made batches of 8 animals that received 10 mL/kg body weigh of the 10% aqueos extractive solutions from the skin, core and pulp of the Vitis Vinifera fruits, Hamburg species. The controls received water, 2.5 ml/100 body weigh animal. As a reference substance we used furosemide in dose of 80 mg/kg body weigh.
The animals were brought individually in urine collecting devices. We measured hourly, during 8 hours, the urine volume and the urinary pH. We measured on the 8 hours urine the urinary sediment, urinary urea, the uric acid, urinary creatinine and the NaCl elimination. We also followed the elimination of pathological compounds: proteins, glucose, ketones, red blood cells . The statistical evaluation was made by the “t” student test [20,21].
Results and Discussions
The aqueos extracts from the cores of the fruits of Vitis Vinifera, Hamburg species increased the diuresis with 21,01%, the extracts from the fruit skin increased the diuresis with 17,26 and the extract from the pulp, with 16,32% (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Table 1. The action of the Vitis vinifera on diuresis on rat
|Batch||Diuresis in 8 hours (mL)||pH||Urinary sediment|
|Control||5.33||–||6,33||–||Rare epithelial cells, rarely calcium oxalate|
|10% seed extract||6.45||21.01||5.87||-7.26||Rare epithelial cells, rarely ugly ammonium|
|10% skin extract||6.25||17.26||6.25||-1.26||Rare epithelial cells, rarely calcium oxalate|
|10% pulp extract||6.20||16.32||6.25||-1.26||Rare amorphous phosphate, rare epithelial cells|
|Furosemide 80mg/fg b.w.||10.1||89.49||6.0||-5.21||Rare epithelial cells|
x±e.s.=media±standard error; p<0,05
Figure 1. The action of the Vitis vinifera on diuresis on rat
The urinary pH and the urinary sediment didn’t presented significant changes. In the urinary sediment weren’t present pathological elements.
After the treatment with the Vitis Vinifera seed extract, the excretion of uric acid in urine increased with 21.02%, for the fruit skin with 20.20% and for the pulp extract with 13.12%. The elimination of urinary urea and NaCl weren’t significantly modified compared to control (Table 2 and Figure 2).
Table 2. The action of the Vitis vinifera on the elimination of uric acid, urea, creatinine and NaCl on rat.
|Batch||Uric acid mmols/L||Creatinine mg/mL||Urinary urea mmol/L||NaCl g/mL|
|10% seed extract||4.39||21.02||0.165||11.48||168||5||0.07689||-0.73|
|10% skin extract||4.36||20.20||0.166||12.16||170||6.25||0.07802||0.72|
|10% pulp extract||4.11||13.12||0.163||10.13||169||5.62||0.07708||–|
|Furosemide 80mg/fg b.w.||3.66||–||0.148||–||167||4.37||0.08515||9.92|
x±e.s.= media±standard error; p<0,05
Figure 2. The action of the Vitis vinifera on the elimination of uric acid, urea, creatinine and NaCl on rat (Effect %)
The chemical complex chemical composition of the Vitis Vinifera fruits gives a series of properties for the extracts, among which the diuretic activity and the capacity of increase the uric acid elimination. The diuretic action and elimination of the uric acid is due to the mineral substances especially to the potassium ions found in increased concentrations in the fruits of Vitis vinifera.
The aqueous extracts from the seeds, skin and pulp of Vitis Vinifera fruits, Hamburg species, has a slight diuretic action, an increase of the uric acid elimination without significantly modifying the urinary pH, urinary sediment, urinary urea and elimination of NaCl. In the urinary sediment weren’t present pathological elements.
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