IONIȚĂ Ana Corina1, CHIȚU Roxana Florentina1, MITITELU Magdalena1*, NICOLESCU Teodor Octavian2, MOROȘAN Elena1, BUŞURICU Florica3, DĂRĂBAN Adriana4, NICOLESCU Florica5
1Clinical Laboratory and Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
2*Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Ovidius University, Mamaia Blvd. 124, 900527, Constanta (ROMANIA)
4 Phaculty of Pharmacy, „Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad (ROMANIA)
5 Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
*corresponding author: email@example.com
Wine contains a multitude of compounds that act as antioxidants and antiplatelet agents or molecules with effects on metabolic processes, with anti-proliferative, chemoprotective, immunomodulatory action. Thus, light to moderate consumption of wine can have beneficial effects on health. Undesirable and unpleasant reactions to wine are generally considered to be of the type of intolerance caused in particular by sulphites, either natural or added or containing biogenic amines. The phytochemical content of grapes from all varieties is related to the environmental conditions, but the level of the wine compounds is influenced by the practices of viticulture, variety, as well as the way of processing the grapes.
In the experimental part of the work, the analysis and sanitary control of some assortments of Romanian wines sold on the market was performed. The following chemical analyzes were performed: determination of free sulphur dioxide, determination of combined sulphur dioxide, determination of total sulphur dioxide.
Keywords: wine, phenolic compounds, resveratrol, biogenic amines, sulphur dioxide
Wine is one of the oldest drinks in the world. There is ample archaeological evidence that it has been consumed since 6,000 BC in Georgia, Iran, Greece, and Armenia.
The phytochemical content of grapes of all varieties is related to environmental conditions, but the level of wine compounds is influenced by viticulture practices, variety and processing of grapes [1,2,3,4]. The compounds found in wines of health interest after consumption, in addition to water, alcohol and sugars are: phenolic acids (p-coumaric, cinnamic, caffeic, gentisic, ferulic, vanillic), trihydroxystylbenes (resveratrol and polydatin), flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechin, epicatechin, myricetin, campferol, quercetin), biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, 2-phenyl-ethyl-amine, putrescein; agmatine and ethanolamine may be abundant, but are generally little researched), aflatoxins (with carcinogenic effects), fungicides, insecticides, fertilizers in wine after treatment of vineyards with these substances, preservatives, clarifiers, residues from cleaning wooden containers in which stores wine or wine processing and bottling facilities (sulphites, bentonite, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and derivatives), etc. [5,6,7].
Anthocyanins are found in the largest proportion in the flavonoid fraction. An increased amount of these compounds is found in the skin and kernels of grapes. Thus, the longer the contact time of the must with the skins and kernels of the grapes during the fermentation process, the higher the flavonoid content. That is why red wine contains these compounds in larger quantities than white wine.
These polyphenols have positive effects on cardiac function and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, by modulating the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hypotensive responses.
In vitro and preclinical modeling studies have shown the association between wine polyphenols and the activation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Flavonoids, in particular quercetin, catechins, tannins and resveratrol act on free radicals, inflammation, tumors, hepato-toxins, inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce cardiovascular disease and the risk of heart attack. These molecules, present in almost all varieties of red wine, have their own action in the cells and tissues adjacent to blood vessels, especially in the endothelium. In addition to the effects already mentioned, they have a direct role in reducing cell proliferation, an action that can be exploited in anticancer therapy [8,9,10].
Clinical studies have been performed on both healthy volunteers and individuals with chronic diseases (dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease) to determine the effects of wine consumption on parameters that characterize inflammation and cardiovascular function. However, it is important to note that these effects depend on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds that can be influenced by many factors: environment, food processing, diet (presence of absorption effects, such as foods rich in fiber and fat), interactions with other compounds (polyphenols with similar mechanism of action), the chemical structure of polyphenols and their concentration in food, as well as host-dependent factors (enzymatic activity in the intestine, transit and microbiota, age, sex, associated pathology) [11-14].
Resveratrol belongs to the stilbenoid group of polyphenols, which have two phenolic rings attached to an ethylene bridge and in wine can come both from the peel of grapes and from the kernels of grapes (where it is found in a larger amount). As a natural food ingredient, numerous studies have shown that resveratrol has a very high antioxidant potential. Resveratrol also has antitumor activity and is considered a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of several types of cancer. Indeed, the anticancer properties of resveratrol have been confirmed by many in vitro and in vivo studies, which show that resveratrol is able to inhibit all stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion and progression). Other bioactive effects have been reported, namely anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, vasorelaxant, antidiabetic, phytoestrogenic and neuroprotective effects. However, comparative evaluation of animal and human studies shows that resveratrol cannot protect against metabolic diseases and their relevant complications [15,16].
The process of obtaining wine is a complex one in which many factors are involved, including the addition of additives or preservatives to obtain the finished product. The fermentation of the must itself can lead to the appearance of new compounds. Even the bottling process.All this contributes to the accumulation in the finished product of several substances with allergenic potential that can create health problems for both healthy people, without previous sensitivities, but especially for those who already have other intolerances or allergies [17,18,19]. Reactions can even be severe with potentially lethal. The alcohol content is an aggravating factor of the potential effects of intolerance or allergy by the fact that it can facilitate the dissolution and faster absorption in the blood of potentially allergenic substances from wine or even from foods consumed with it to which are added the negative effects of alcohol.
In the experimental part of the work, the analysis and sanitary control of some assortments of Romanian wines sold on the market was performed. The following chemical analyzes were performed: determination of free sulphur dioxide, determination of combined sulphur dioxide, determination of total sulphur dioxide. 22 Wine samples were studied: 10 red wine samples and 12 white wine samples. The free sulphur dioxide is titrated with iodine in an acid medium. The combined sulphur dioxide is released (by titration with sodium hydroxide and then with sulphuric acid), after which it is titrated with iodine in the presence of starch . According to the literature, the total sulphur dioxide content of wines, excluding sparkling and liqueur wines, may not exceed, at the time of consumption: 150 mg/L for red wines and 200 mg/L for white and rosé wines .
The results obtained from the analyzes performed are presented in Fig. 1-6.
Fig. 1. Free sulphur dioxide (mg/L) from red wine samples
Fig. 2. Combined sulphur dioxide (mg/L) from red wine samples
Fig. 3. Total sulphur dioxid
Fig. 3. Total sulphur dioxide (mg/L) from red wine samples
Legend M.A.I.- maximum allowable limit
Fig. 4. Free sulphur dioxide (mg/L) from white wine samples
Fig. 5. Combined sulphur dioxide (mg/L) from white wine samples
Fig. 6. Total sulphur dioxide (mg/L) from white wine samples
Legend S1-S12-samples 1-12; M. A. L.-maximum allowable limit
According to the experimental results obtained in the determination of free, combined and total sulphur dioxide, the following are observed:
– for the assortments of red wines analyzed in all the samples, the total sulphur dioxide content falls within the limits allowed by the standards in force. The lowest amount of total sulphur dioxide is present in sample 2 (96 mg/L), and the highest amount of total sulphur dioxide is present in sample 6 (147.2 mg/L);
– for the varieties of white wines analyzed, the lowest amount of total sulphur dioxide is present in sample 2 (7.04 mg/L), and the highest amount of total sulphur dioxide is present in sample 7 (211.2 mg/L), a value which exceeds the maximum permitted limit.
The American Heart Association recommends that women consume a maximum of one 150 ml glass of wine, while the recommended dose for men is 300 ml, ie a maximum of two glasses. The difference comes from the way each body metabolizes and absorbs alcohol, this process being faster for women, but also from the fact that women have a higher level of body fat and lower body water, so the physiological response is more strong to alcohol.
Clinical studies show that people who drink a glass of wine 4-6 times a week can prolong their life and have a high level of HDL cholesterol in the blood and the high content of antioxidants also helps improve digestion.
We studied 22 samples of wine from Romanian producers, varieties sold on the Romanian market (10 samples of red wine and 12 samples of white wine). Following the laboratory analyzes, it was found that there are varieties of wine that contain a higher amount of total sulphur dioxide than the maximum limits allowed by the legislation in force. Unwanted and unpleasant reactions to wine consumption are generally considered to be of the type of intolerances caused in particular by sulphites, either natural or added or the content of biogenic amines. As a result, a more rigorous control is required regarding the total sulphur dioxide content of the wines sold on the market.
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- *** Vine and wine Law no. 164/2015