OZON Emma Adriana1#, IONIȚĂ Elena Iuliana2#, LUPULEASA Dumitru1#, DUMITRESCU Denisa Elena3#, HÎNCU Lucian1#, MITITELU Magdalena4#
1Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
2Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Phytotherapy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
3 Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ovidius University, Mamaia Blvd. 124, 900527, Constanta (ROMANIA)
4 Clinical Laboratory and Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, ”Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 6, Traian Vuia Street, 020956, Bucharest (ROMANIA)
#Author Contributions: All authors have equally contributed to the work reported
Basic shampoos may be selected from several formulations depending on the amount of scalp sebum production, hair shaft diameter, and hair shaft condition. In the experimental part of this work it was prepared some L/H shampoos with natural extracts whose stability is ensured by the 2 emulsifiers: sodium stearate formed in situ following the saponification reaction between stearic acid and sodium hydroxide in glycerinated medium and sodium lauryl sulfate. The shampoos were submitted at some control tests in order to determinate their characteristics, stability and efficiency (as etalon was used a shampoo from market, Head &Shoulders).
Keywords: shampoo, volatile oils, foaming index
Shampoos are cosmetic products that contain detergents, various natural extracts and essences, used to maintain scalp hygiene. The label usually defines the intended consumer by stating normal hair, oily hair, dry hair, or damaged, colored-treated hair. Some companies alter the concentrations of detergents and conditioners to make different formulations, but the ingredient lists may be identical for all formulations. Other product lines have different formulations for each type [1,2].
Seborrheic dermatitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the skin, which manifests itself in whitish, oily or dry scales. The dermatological condition is not contagious, and the symptoms appear on the scalp, face (forehead, eyebrows, eyelids, sides of the nose), behind the ears, in the external auditory canal, on the chest or shoulders .
The aim of the paper is to formulate L/H shampoos with natural extracts for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis whose stability is ensured by the 2 emulsifiers: sodium stearate formed in situ following the saponification reaction between stearic acid and sodium hydroxide in glycerinated medium and sodium lauryl sulfate. Lauryl sulfates (sodium lauryl sulfate, triethanolamine lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate) are found in most shampoos as the main surfactant since they work well in both hard and soft water, produce rich foam, and are easy to remove. This group produces good cleansing but is hard on the hair.
Marine Z is a complex of seaweed and zinc with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, it is used in applications to combat acne, balance sebum secretion in the skin and scalp, improve the condition and appearance of oily skin. Recognized for the benefits it brings to the scalp and hair, nettle is an effective cosmetic asset, used in shampoos, masks, serums and hair rubs, to combat baldness, strengthen hair, in case of dandruff, itching or oily hair. The use of nettle powder is recommended in cosmetics in the form of maceration, a solution in which, unlike infusions, most elements of the plant will be found, including heat-sensitive ones. A 10% maceration is optimal to be used in most cosmetic compositions. Pracaxi oil is an exotic oil of Amazonian origin, highly valued for skin and hair care formulations designed to combat skin aging, reduce scars, hyperpigmentation and a wide range of skin problems. Also ideal for hair and scalp care. The volatile oils (Tea Tree oil, Basil oil) used in the formulations are known and appreciated for their significant antimicrobial and antifungal effect. In addition, they also contribute to a pleasant smell [4-11].
The shampoos were submitted at some control tests in order to determinate their characteristics, stability and efficiency (as etalon was used a shampoo from market, Head &Shoulders) [12-14].
Materials and methods
Formulation and manufacturing process
Three L/H shampoos used for seborrheic dermatitis were prepared according to the formulations presented in table 1.
Table 1. Shampoos composition
|Formulation I||Formulation II||Formulation III|
|Nettle water macerate 10%||–||10||–|
|Tea Tree oil||–||5||–|
|Sodium lauryl sulfate||35||30||25|
|Water||to 100||to 100||to 100|
Stearin, glycerol and 5 g of water were heated on a water bath, at around 90ºC, then added the sodium hydroxide under the form of 10% solution, stirring until no foam is forming anymore. For Formulation III ceramide is added to the cream and heated. Sodium lauryl sulfate was dispersed in the rest of the water and heated at 70ºC, then added to the obtained cream, continuously mixing until cooling. Butylhydroxyanisole is added to the cool mixture, then, in case of Formulation I the shampoo base is mixed with Marine Z and Pracaxi oil, for Formulation II with the Nettle water macerate 10% and Tea Tree oil, and for Formulation III Basil oil is added. During the manufacturing process, a saponification reaction is taking place between stearin and sodium hydroxide, and the resulted sodium stearate is a potent L/H emulsifier.
Quality control of the shampoos
The organoleptic control (appearance, colour, smell, uniformity) was performed according to F.R.X guidelines .
The pH was determined in an aqueous phase prepared by stirring 1 g of product in 10 ml heated water, on the water bath heated at 600C for 10 min. After cooling, the aqueous phase was filtered and the pH was measured using a Radelkis pH-meter.
The determination of the emulsion type was performed by following tests: dilution test, colour test and electrical conductivity test .
The stability was analysed by maintaining the samples at two different temperatures (20C and 400C) for 24 hours, then the appearance and pH were examined [13,14].
The spreadability was tested using the Ojeda Arbussa method and the results were compared with the ones obtained for a market shampoo (Head &Shoulders) used as etalon .
The foaming index which should be higher than 1 in order to ensure a good foaming ability to be capable to easily remove greasy substances and an efficient cleaning of the scalp. In three tubes each samples were brought until they reached a 2.5 cm height and strongly stirred for 2 minutes. We measured the final foam height and compared it with the initial one .
The viscosity was determined with a rotational Brookfield LFV viscometer, made by Brookfield Engineering, UK.
Results and Discussions
The organoleptic control. All shampoos presented homogenous aspects, a characteristic odour according to the included ingredients, and different colours: the formulation I lead to a yellowish colour shampoo, the second one to a dark green-brown, and the third to a white one (figure 1).
Figure 1. The appearance of the prepared shampoos
The pH, emulsion type and viscosity results are registered in table 2.
Table 2. Shampoos characteristics
|Characteristics||Formulation I||Formulation II||Formulation III|
The obtained data show that the shampoos have a suitable to purpose pH, an adequate viscosity to the pharmaceutical form and the identified emulsion type is L/H for all three samples. Moreover, the preparations presented a good stability by maintaining the homogenous appearance at both 20C and 400C.
The registered values for the foaming index are presented in table 3.
Table 3. Foaming ability
|FORMULATION||INITIAL HEIGHT||FINAL HEIGHT||FOAMING INDEX|
|Formulation I||2.5 cm||9.7 cm||3.88|
|Formulation II||2.5 cm||11.3 cm||4.52|
|Formulation III||2.5 cm||9.3 cm||3.72|
|Etalon||2.5 cm||12 cm||4.80|
The values of all foaming indexes are much higher than 1, concluding that the three formulation have all good tensioactive abilities, similar enough with a famous market product.
The spreading behaviour of the three studied shampoos in comparison with the etalon is presented in figure 2.
We can notice that the prepared shampoos have a suitable plasticity, being easy to aplly on the scalp. Still, we are remarking that formulation I has a spreadability similar to etalon one, meantime formulations II and III registered lower values.
According to the results of the performed test in the quality control, we can notice that all three types of shampoos studied and prepared are presenting an adequate appearance and homogeneity, a compatible with skin pH value, a good stability, an excellent spreadability and flowability, and a proper foaming index.
The active ingredients were selected to obtain three different L/H shampoos, but with the same therapeutic effect.
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